Approaching the 2030 Agenda from a Hydrological Cycle Based Perspective

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Here is a paper that may prove useful in efforts towards achieving the Goals and Targets set out in the UN Sustainable Development Agenda ‘Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’, which was finalised and agreed upon by world governments at the UN Summit, New York, September 2015. It is an Active Remedy submission towards the UN ‘Global Sustainable Development Report 2019’ and was accepted in December 2017.

It is intended to aid in putting the Goals and Targets of the UN Agenda: ‘Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ into perspective and to offer an innovative framework for practical action that could be useful in implementing them. It highlights the hydrological cycle as a major issue, not explicitly taken into account in this Agenda and focuses upon the interconnectedness between the hydrological cycle, climate and the Sustainable Development Goals.

It offers a seemingly simple, yet possibly crucial change of perspective towards approaching and achieving the Goals and Targets. A ‘water cycle based perspective’ could change the very way that we collectively approach both sustainable development and human induced climate change for the better.

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]We hope that you enjoy reading this document and find it useful and informative. If you do then please share it as widely as possible.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]The SGGC Model could also be useful in the implementation of Target 6.6 of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote font_family=”none” align=”left”]“By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes”  

Download: UN, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/un_the_2030_agenda_for_sustainable_development.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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An Outline of the Sacred Groves & Green Corridors (SGGC) Method

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Spurred by increasing instability in the climate systems and the global water cycle and the related increase of natural disasters, Active Remedy Ltd. has formulated an innovative method that can be applied and adapted to facilitate ecological restoration, preservation and adaptation efforts around world. This method is called The Sacred Groves and Green Corridors (SGGC) method.

The SGGC method has been formulated in conjunction with traditional indigenous mountain people over many years. It offers a diversity of approaches that understand, respect and are adaptable to local ecosystems, values, spiritual customs and taboos. It is a horticultural method of working directly with mountain communities that integrates modern and traditional knowledge conservation methods, along with long-term sustainability concepts. It does this through combining the conservation methods of sacred groves, green-corridors/ greenbelts, permaculture and companion planting.

On the 30th of March 2016 the Secretariat of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) wrote to us inviting us to contribute towards a worldwide database on the use of Local, Indigenous and Traditional Knowledge and Practices for Climate Adaptation. In response to this request, we submitted this Report outlining the SGGC Method.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]We hope that you enjoy reading this document and find it useful and informative. If you do then please share it as widely as possible.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_image src=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/FRONT-COVER-crop-1024×414.jpg” image_width=”800″ image_height=”500″ crop=”false” lightbox=”false” frame_style=”simple” target=”_blank” caption_location=”inside-image” align=”left” margin_bottom=”10″ link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/A_Model_for_Utilising_Local_Indigenous_and_Traditional_Knowledge-and_Practices_to_Address_Global_Climate_cover_v2.pdf”]
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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]The SGGC Model could also be useful in the implementation of Target 6.6 of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes”  

Download: UN, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/un_the_2030_agenda_for_sustainable_development.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]In 2015 we created a document that examines the crucial importance of water and Target 6.6 in the implementation of many of the Goals and Targets within the UN 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.[/mk_fancy_title]
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An Environmentally Sustainable Way to Proceed

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]We are in a time of great evolutionary challenges and changes and without adopting an environmentally sustainable way to proceed we have little chance of survival.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Today we are faced with a challenge that calls for a shift in our thinking, so that humanity stops threatening its life-support system.”  

Download: Wangari Maathai’s Nobel Prize acceptance speech 2004.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wangari-maathais-nobel-prize-acceptance-speech-2004.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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Sustainable development implies a way of living and developing that is in accord with nature. Humanity, along with all other species, has the natural instinct to aid the continuation of our species. However many of our present unsustainable practices contradict this because they threaten the life support systems and livelihoods of both present and future generations. Now there is an urgent need for humanity to cease unsustainable practices and continues only with development that is long-term environmentally sustainable. Safeguarding and protecting the global water cycle so that an adequate quantity of fresh water is produced to support life on Earth is crucial towards achieving these aims.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Protecting and restoring the ecosystems, which the water cycle depends upon, is central to all long-term sustainable development.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Ensuring that ecosystems are protected and conserved is central to achieving water security – both for people and for nature. Ecosystems are vital to sustaining the quantity and quality of water available within a watershed, on which both nature and people rely. Maintaining the integrity of ecosystems is essential for supporting the diverse needs of humans, and for the sustainability of ecosystems, including protecting the water- provisioning services they provide.”  

Download: U.N Analytical Brief, 2013.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/un-analytical-brief-2013.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Although water shortages and security have been discussed in government and UN circles and conferences since the 1970’s the fundamental work that needs to be done to safeguard the global water cycle itself, has been largely side-lined in favour of water privatisation schemes.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Until fairly recently, it was generally believed that the State is entrusted to protect and secure peoples’ rights to a well-balanced environment. In that line, some progressive governments are exploring ways of promoting the recognition of the rights of Nature itself, including people, to live in harmony and free from exploitation, degradation and pollution. However, other governments are promoting policies, laws and mechanisms that transfer the management of the environment and as a result, of water to markets, corporations and the financial system.”  

Download: Economic Drivers of Water Financialization, FOE International, 2013.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/foe-international-2013-economic-drivers-of-water-financialization.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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In the meantime water quantity has decreased and millions of people suffer and die from the problems, which occur in extreme water scarcity conditions. Also many species suffer and become extinct. Water privatisation schemes cannot secure or increase the quantity of freshwater globally and so condemn the majority of life on Earth to extinction. These schemes are unsustainable and are not acceptable as they undermine the possibility of all true sustainable development.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]The importance of ecosystems within the water agenda cannot be over emphasised. In the Rio+20 sustainable development conference in 2012 world governments signed a document recognising this:[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]”We recognize the key role that ecosystems play in maintaining water quantity and quality and support actions within the respective national boundaries to protect and sustainably manage these ecosystems.” ()  

Download: UN. 2012, Rio+20, The Future We Want RES/A/66/288 para.122.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/un_2012_the_future_we_want_resa66288_para212.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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However almost two years later essential water resourcing environments such as rain forests are still being rapidly degraded rather than protected. Also governments in favour of the privatisation of all freshwater supplies are forwarding the human right to water as universal access to water for all by 2030.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]All too often information about present environmental conditions are not fitted together cohesively when formulating goals.[/mk_fancy_title]
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This can be seen in the lack of connection between the discussed goal for universal access to water for all by 2030 and statistics like these ones given by the FAO:

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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Water scarcity affects almost every continent and more than 40% of the people on our planet. With current trends 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity by 2025 and two thirds of the world’s population could be living under water stressed conditions.”  

Download: UN News, FAO, 22/5/13.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/un-news-fao-2013.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]We need to make the active decision to adjust our practices so that they do not continue to drain Earth’s natural resources for the vast benefit of a very few and at the cost of the many. Without making this an urgent priority, other steps towards long-term sustainability will prove to be fruitless and long-term water security will not be possible.[/mk_fancy_title]
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Permaculture for Working in Harmony with Nature

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]The conditions in mountain regions are often harsh and unaccommodating. However despite this, biodiversity urgently needs spreading throughout these regions so that mountain ecosystems can continue doing their work of regulating the global water cycle and climate.[/mk_fancy_title]
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It is not enough to simply plant trees, the biodiversity needs to be long-term sustainable. Therefore, in these conditions, man-made technological innovation is not enough. For this task it is necessary to work with the tried and tested strengths of nature. Nature has evolved and adapted in intricate ways to deal with extreme conditions. These strengths can be worked with by humanity to achieve positive and successful results. It is still conceivably possible to create an interconnected network of biodiversity throughout mountain regions. Green corridors linking community managed protected groves would be an ideal way of doing this. However because of the harsh conditions and urgency of the situation, it is necessary to work with the co-supporting properties of plant combinations that naturally exist within biodiversity.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Permaculture is a very effective and efficient approach for utilising the positive properties of plants.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Permaculture shows how to observe the dynamics of natural ecosystems. We can apply this knowledge in designing constructed ecosystems that serve the needs of human populations without degrading our natural environment. Permaculture sites integrate plants, animals, landscapes, structures and humans into symbiotic systems where the products of one element serve the needs of another. Once established, a permaculture system can be maintained using a minimum of materials, energy and labor.”  

Download: Sandy Cruz and Jerome Osentowski, Permaculture Article.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/sandy-cruz-and-jerome-osentowski-permaculture-article.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Bill Mollison developed permaculture after spending decades in the rain forests and deserts of Australia studying ecosystems.[/mk_fancy_title]
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He observed that plants naturally group themselves in mutually beneficial communities and he used this idea to develop a different approach to agriculture and community design. It is based on the interdependent way that nature functions with the different plant and wildlife species regulating and supporting one another. Ideas for companion planting comes from similar observances.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]The word Permaculture refers to permanent agriculture and is understood as agriculture that is based on a natural sustainability model and that can be sustained indefinitely.[/mk_fancy_title]
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It also refers to permanent culture, which recognizes the profound relationship between humanity and the environment and an understanding of the supportive dynamics of varied ecosystems. It is an integrated design philosophy that encompasses gardening, architecture, horticulture, ecology, even money management and community design. The basic approach is to create sustainable systems that provide for their own needs and recycle their waste.

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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.”  

Download: UNCED, Rio 1992, Principe 1, Report on UN Conference on Environment and Development.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/unced-rio-1992-principe-1-report-on-un-conference-on-environment-and-development.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Living and working in a way that is in harmony with nature is a topic that has created a lot of discussion in recent times especially in the context of sustainable development.[/mk_fancy_title]
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Although the term ‘Permaculture’ is relatively recent, it draws upon thousands of years of traditional knowledge and human observance of the most beneficial natural dynamics and combinations that provide long-term environmental sustainability. It is a way of forest gardening and living in accord with nature and natural abundance, rather than being at odds, depleting and wasting nature’s vast store. This knowledge can be applied for protecting and restoring ecosystems and serving the needs of humanity without degrading natural environments. It is a way for humanity to work and live in harmony with Nature, which respects the rights of fellow humans along with the other species that one shares this vast Earth with.

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Our proposed method takes into account long-term environmental sustainability, human rights, economies and the reduction of poverty and embraces the essence and principles of Sustainable Development as agreed upon by world governments in Agenda 21 in 1992.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Peace, Development and Environmental Protection are Interdependent and Indivisible. (UNCED, Rio 1992, Principe 25)[/mk_fancy_title]
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Green Corridors /Green Belts for Global Biodiversity Connectivity

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Green corridors/ Green belts have proven to be a highly effective method for preserving, linking and spreading biodiversity over great distances.[/mk_fancy_title]
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They demonstrate a fast and effective way of conserving, spreading and linking biodiversity over large areas of land while focusing on relatively small areas. They facilitate free movement of plants and animals, preserve species and prevent the fragmentation of habitats and ecosystems.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Isolated and fragmented areas of forest are more vulnerable to climate change and less capable of supporting wildlife, stabilizing soils and generating water.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Fragmentation of habitats and ecosystems is one of the most serious threats to biodiversity worldwide. Retaining or restoring connectivity is crucial to securing healthy, resilient and sustainable ecosystems.”  

Download: Connectivity ,Conservation and Ecological Restoration, Bush Heritage.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/bush-heritage-connectivity-conservation-and-ecological-restoration.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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Because mountain ecosystems are immensely crucial within the global water cycle, the environmental degradation in these regions has global impacts and critically needs to be halted and reversed. A fast, efficient mountain biodiversity restoration, preservation strategy is urgently required. Green corridors/greenbelts could play a key part in this. However, green corridors/greenbelts would be much more effective and in harmony with the needs and traditions of mountain communities, when in combination with a few other conservation models. Therefore creating them as connecting corridors of biodiversity, that interlink a network of community managed sacred groves and peace parks, would be a much more effective and long-term sustainable approach. Therefore creating them as connecting corridors of biodiversity, that interlink a network of community managed sacred groves and peace parks, would be a much more effective and long-term sustainable approach.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]When creating these corridors it is important that the plants used are a rich, balanced variety of native species. Also they need to be selected for their environmental properties as well as for their value to the local communities.[/mk_fancy_title]
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These communities benefit from plants, which preserve water and soil vitality and also those that provide medicines, fodder, food and fibre. Thus including plants, which provide these, can support the needs of mountain communities whilst at the same time conserving and spreading biodiversity. When managed cohesively so that the biodiversity is preserved, whilst at the same time sustainably harvested, these corridors can enrich local resources, bring more immediate employment, support cottage industry and help to secure community support. The concept of green corridors and green belts is not new. In Britain it was demonstrated through the hedge system that covered the British countryside for hundreds of years.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Kenya’s Green Belt Movement has made a great contribution to conservation worldwide.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Kenya’s Green Belt Movement became Internationally famous in 2004 when its founder, Wangari Maathai, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Since 1977, in Kenya and other parts of Africa, the movement has planted millions of trees in an effort to restore ecosystems, promote sustainable livelihoods, empower women, and promote democracy. Increasingly, Maathai has drawn a close connection between all these objectives and the quest for a peaceful society. As a result, Maathai and the movement she inspired are now well known Internationally.”  

Download: Kenya’s Green Belt Movement,Bron Taylor, 2013.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/bron-taylor-2013-kenyas-green-belt-movement.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Wangari Maathai also recognised the importance of uniting environmental conservation with the preservation of people’s traditions and culture.[/mk_fancy_title]
[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“As I tried to encourage women and the African people in general to understand the need to conserve the environment, I discovered how crucial it is to return constantly to our cultural heritage.”  

Download: Wangari Maathai, 2004, Nobel Prize acceptance speech.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/wangari-maathais-nobel-prize-acceptance-speech-2004.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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The green corridor/ green belt concept is also presently being recognised and implemented as ‘Connectivity Conservation’.

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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Connectivity conservation is based around the concept of ‘landscape corridors’ that maintain or establish multi-directional and multi-scale connections over entire landscapes and can encompass up to thousands of square kilometres. Connectivity conservation extends the concepts of biodiversity and biological corridors to the landscape scale.”  

Download: Dept. Environment, Climate Change and Water, NSW, Australia, 2010.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/dept-environment-climate-change-and-water-nsw-australia-2010.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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The ‘Sacred Grove and Green Corridor’ Method that we have formulated is a combination of these various inspiring examples of linking biodiversity.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]This tradition provides valuable practical methods, which can be utilised to restore and conserve the ecosystems that are so crucial for stabilising and regulating the global water cycle.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]”Recognizing that environmental management of mountains needs to take holistic approaches in conserving the environment, while at the same time providing sustainable incomes for mountain dwellers, including appropriate compensation for their services;”  

Download: Declaration for the International Year of Mountains,Tokyo UNU, 2002.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/unu-2002-tokyo-declaration-for-the-international-year-of-mountains.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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How Traditional Knowledge Has Preserved Biodiversity Through Time

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]Our ancestors were fully aware that the natural resources that sustained them must be conserved for the sustenance of future generations.[/mk_fancy_title]
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This deep connection between protecting biodiversity and protecting the ancient rituals and traditions has meant that there are still many beautiful examples of both of these in the present day. However in recent times this strong bond has become weaker and many rich traditions as well as vital ecosystems are rapidly being lost. Traditional knowledge of biodiversity is a source of great wealth of information. It provides a practical understanding of how long-term sustainable environmental conservation is possible. This knowledge has been tried and tested over the centuries and has helped to conserve the livelihoods of many civilisations and their surrounding ecosystems. Throughout India, designating areas of forest as Sacred Groves/Forest Temples has been the predominant traditional method of environmental conservation.

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]This tradition provides valuable practical methods, which can be utilised to restore and conserve the ecosystems that are so crucial for stabilising and regulating the global water cycle.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]Sacred groves still exist in many countries around the world but nowadays the majority of them have been demolished or forgotten.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote font_family=”none” align=”left”]“Sacred forests have consistently been found to have higher species diversity than surrounding areas and, in some cases, even more than government-protected areas in similar regions. Sacred forests also contain a high diversity of medicinally important plants. In a study of five sacred groves in Kodagu (Karnataka,India), Boraiah et al. (2003) found that 60% of the regenerating species (136 of 241 species) were medicinally important.”   Download: Sacred Forests of India, Alison A. Ormsby et al., 2010.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/alison-a-ormsby-et-al-2010-sacred-forests-of-india.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]
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In comparison to Western scientific conservation models, which advocate the creation of national parks and sanctuaries, the conservation of biodiversity in people-declared-managed sacred groves and peace parks has more chances of being adopted throughout mountain regions of the world. This may be due to the fact that they would be more intimately connected to the social life of the communities. Peace parks are a way of joining fragmented wildlife habitats by forming interconnected mosaics of protected areas and cross-border wildlife corridors, which allow for the free movement of animals and plant species. They offer conservation as a viable land-use option for the benefit of the local people

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]In these times of both environmental and economic crisis it is very important that the connecting of different communities, cultures and knowledge systems takes place.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote font_family=”none” align=”left”]“An inextricable link between present society and past in terms of biodiversity, culture, religious and ethnic heritage exists in sacred groves. Sacred groves are distributed across the globe, and diverse cultures recognize them in different ways encoding various rules for their protection.”   Download: The Sacred Groves and Their Significance in Conserving Biodiversity M.L. Khan et al., 2008.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/ml-khan-et-al-2008-the-sacred-groves-and-their-significance-in-conserving-biodiversity.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]
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The creation of numerous interconnected small sacred groves and/or ‘peace parks’ along with the preservation and restoration of existing ones could be a surprisingly effective way for protecting, conserving and increasing biodiversity. These could be connected by green corridors/ green belts. In mountain regions this would be particularly important in regulating the global water cycle, thus having far reaching impacts throughout the whole world for both present and future generations.

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]Sacred groves provide us with a reminder that human cultures and biodiversity have evolved together and that the encouragement of such a link is likely to be a key element in an ecologically and socially secure long-term sustainable future.[/mk_fancy_title]
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The Benefits of Sacred Groves and Peace Parks

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]A high biodiversity network of mountain community managed forest groves, linked by green corridors/ belts could be a viable solution for restoring mountain ecosystems.[/mk_fancy_title]
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There are two highly successful, community based, practices for preserving areas of biodiversity, which are well suited for this. These are the ancient tradition of sacred groves and the more recent practice of establishing peace parks. The two practices have different emphasis yet combined they posses all the required elements that can be easily adopted by mountain communities and diverse communities around the world. For many thousands of years throughout India and the world, people have respected the importance of nature and biodiversity and have protected particular areas as sacred living temples, sacred groves or as places of exquisite beauty where they found solace, peace and a place for the reviving of their spirits and health.

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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Local communities protect such groves usually through customary taboos and sanctions. The socio-religious and cultural element that provokes and influences the human psyche to conserve nature is a peculiar feature of this practice.” ()  

Download: A Cultural Device To Conserve Ecology in Uttaranchal, Girija Pande, Dev Vans.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/girija-pande-dev-vans-a-cultural-device-to-conserve-ecology-in-uttaranchal.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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Sacred groves are ideal for the purpose because they have proven to be invaluable in environmental conservation around the world since antiquity. They are areas of biodiversity conserved by the local people and are often the remnants of the primary forests. The tradition is intertwined with the cultural and religious practices of rural communities.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Sacred groves still exist in many countries around the world but nowadays the majority of them have been demolished or forgotten.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_image src=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/sacred-grove.jpg” image_width=”800″ image_height=”350″ crop=”false” lightbox=”false” frame_style=”simple” target=”_self” caption_location=”inside-image” align=”left” margin_bottom=”10″]
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However there are still many thousands existing throughout India and the Himalayan regions, where the tradition still thrives. This is of great significance considering the global importance of Himalayan ecosystems.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Over 17,000 sacred groves still survive in India today; these have managed to save a lot of biodiversity that would otherwise have been destroyed and in many cases would no longer exist anywhere else on Earth.[/mk_fancy_title]
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Our ancestors were fully aware that the natural resources that sustained them must be conserved for the sustenance of future generations. The combination of the trees and the various medicinal plants found in sacred groves, impacts greatly upon the surrounding areas. They have been shown to improve soil stability, prevent topsoil erosion and provide irrigation for agriculture in dry, arid climates; as well as providing healing sanctuaries and medicines. Many groves contain water resources such as lakes, ponds and streams, and the vegetative mass that retains water and releases it during times of drought.

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These groves enhance local environmental and cultural wealth and are also ideal for practical environmental educational activities. They are similar to temples but with the main emphasis being on the biodiversity in the grove and not on a building. However these forest groves do not necessarily need to be of a specific religious designation. In some areas, community ‘Peace Parks’ may be more relevant. Sacred groves and Peace parks can work very well together. Depending on the temperaments and needs of the local communities, one may be more suitable than the other in any given area. Due to the fact that peace parks and sacred groves are complimentary they can be linked together as part of an interconnected biodiversity conservation network.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]In combination with sacred groves, peace parks can be places where people of different traditions, backgrounds and age groups can join together in creating places of natural beauty.[/mk_fancy_title]
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These parks and groves can bring people closer to nature, give a sense of community and belonging and protect biodiversity. Peace parks have a great potential in this respect because they were initially created as a method for easing tensions between bordering States. By establishing the recognition of mutual dependence upon shared biosphere systems, peace parks are a way of achieving peaceful relations between countries through environmental conservation.

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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“For over seventy years, peace parks have served as a model for transboundary conservation that is holistic and cooperative.”  

Download: Peace Parks for Mountain Forests, Hsiao. E, 2010.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/hsiao.-e-2010-peace-parks-for-mountain-forests.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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Utilising the practices of sacred groves and peace parks could be significantly important for designing strategies for rehabilitating many, otherwise unmanageable, degraded landscapes. The fact that these two traditions are globally recognised gives them the potential to fit with many different cultures, landscapes and situations. They could provide a way to encourage the participation of local people and link diverse communities across the world.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]One way to preserve biodiversity is to give communities the right to look after it.[/mk_fancy_title]
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Sacred Groves and Green Corridors Solution

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]Recognising that to safeguard the global water cycle, mountain ecosystems worldwide need restoring and preserving; we have designed a method, which could be implemented rapidly worldwide with relatively low expenditure.[/mk_fancy_title]
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This method has been formulated considering the integration of modern and traditional conservation methods. We have integrated the conservation methods of Sacred Groves, Green Corridors, Permaculture, companion planting and cottage industry scale cultivation of medicinal plants. This combination has the potential to cover the diverse requirements for the difficult global task of rapidly restoring and protecting these crucial ecosystems throughout mountains worldwide. The overall objective is to rebalance and secure the global water cycle. However the on the ground aim is to facilitate biodiversity to spread throughout mountain regions quickly and in such a way as can be long-term sustainable.

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Essentially it is about working with the strengths of natural biodiversity in creating all the necessary conditions. It involves management techniques, which supports the relevant biodiversity to revive harsh environments, establish balance and positively effect water and climate. Therefore it could also be considered to be a Permaculture design for the regeneration and preservation of watersheds and indigenous mixed mountain forests globally. Within it we have integrated the method of establishing green corridors/ belts because these have proved to be a successful way of spreading biodiversity across huge distances, whilst needing less resources and management than many environmental restoration methods. This is because although the focus area is a relatively narrow, long strip of land, it facilitates biodiversity to spread over a large area beyond the corridors.

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]These corridors also link otherwise isolated habitats and protect soil and water.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]The Sacred Groves, Green Corridors Method involves creating and maintaining an interlinking network of these green corridors that link many small community managed forest patches and biodiversity.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote font_family=”none” align=”left”]“The maintenance and restoration of ecosystem integrity requires landscape-scale conservation. This can be achieved through systems of core protected areas that are functionally linked and buffered in ways that maintain ecosystem processes and allow species to survive and move, thus ensuring that populations are viable and that ecosystems and people are able to adapt to land transformation and climate change. We call this proactive, holistic, and long-term approach connectivity conservation.”  

Download: The Papallacta Declaration 2006.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/the-papallacta-declaration-2006.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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Within the green corridors, the plants grown would be those with important ecological properties as well as those that provide for the specific needs of the local communities (e.g. food, medicines, fuel, fodder, phytoremediation etc.).It is important to recognize that the collaboration with mountain communities is essential for the effectiveness of any environmental mountain restoration endeavor of this magnitude. In order to fit this method with the needs and traditions of mountain communities, we have integrated Sacred Groves. This is an ancient conservation tradition that has proved to be very effective and one, which is still valued in many mountain regions worldwide.

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Sacred Groves have great potential to unite remote communities and restore and preserve large quantities of biodiversity when linked by a network of green corridors over mountain regions. Our proposed method addresses water security, food security, equity and the essence and principles of Sustainable Development as agreed upon by world governments in Agenda 21 in 1992.

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[mk_image src=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/managing-biodiversity.jpg” crop=”false”]
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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]Due to rapidly deteriorating environmental conditions and the fragility of mountain regions, it is urgent that a globally interconnected method, which accords with mountain people and their traditional ecological knowledge, is applied as soon as possible.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote font_family=”none” align=”left”]“Traditional Ecological Knowledge is an attribute of societies with historical continuity in resource use practice (Dei 1993).”  

Download: Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Fikret Berkes et al, 2000.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/fikret-berkes-et-al-2000-traditional-ecological-knowledge.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none”]We propose that the Sacred Groves, Green Corridors Model may be a very important way of restoring biodiversity throughout very diverse and difficult mountain regions.[/mk_fancy_title]
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A Remedy which Involves and Supports Mountain People

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Mountain communities are the natural stewards of the high altitude watersheds and water sources. Therefore they should be encouraged and supported to do this valuable work.[/mk_fancy_title]
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However if mountain communities are supported, they can provide the very important service of regenerating, safeguarding and preserving the natural ecologies. This was agreed by world governments in Johannesburg in 2002:

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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Mountain people with many thousands of years of experience living and working in their rugged environments, are overlooked stewards of fragile landscapes that support over 10% of the Earth’s population, and protect the watersheds that ensure freshwater for more than half of humanity.”
  

Download: Mountain Laws And Peoples, Centre for International Environmental Law, 1997.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/centre-for-international-environmental-law-mountain-laws-and-peoples-1997.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Without the recognition of the vital part that they play in being the natural caretakers of the mountain forests, they will be forced by poverty to either degrade these resources even further or to migrate.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Promote full participation and involvement of mountain communities in decisions that affect them and integrate indigenous knowledge, heritage and values in all development initiatives;”  

Download: UN, 2002, Plan of Implementations.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/un-2002-plan-of-implementations.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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It has always been in the interest of these communities to protect the natural resources, which supported their livelihoods. However they play a key role in preserving the global water cycle because they are one of the few groups of people who are actually capable of living and working in mountain regions with their extreme climatic and environmental conditions. Now that mountain resources have been so extremely depleted, the daily necessities of the local rural communities further exacerbates the problem. Therefore the well-being these communities need to be carefully considered.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Restoration methods need to fit specifically with the requirements and traditions of the different social groups throughout mountain regions worldwide.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“indigenous cultures, traditions and knowledge, including in the field of medicine, are to be fully considered, respected and promoted in development policy and planning in mountain regions, and underlines the importance of promoting full participation and involvement of mountain communities in decisions that affect them and of integrating indigenous knowledge, heritage and values in all development initiatives.” (U.N, A/RES/60/198)  [/mk_blockquote]
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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]It is important to recognise that the collaboration with mountain communities is essential for the effectiveness of any environmental mountain restoration program.[/mk_fancy_title]
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It is only by involving and supporting them that an endeavour of this magnitude can be successfully achieved and prove to be long-term sustainable. There are many examples of conservation attempts that have not sufficiently included the local people and which have therefore not been sustainable, or achieved the intended goals. It is important to learn from these and to not make the same mistakes, when working on something as crucial as safeguarding the global water cycle.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]It is important to note that supporting mountain communities is not simply an act of charity.[/mk_fancy_title]
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It is a means by which, all lowland communities can safeguard their own long-term interests. The health of the global water cycle affects everyone and all ecosystems. If it is to be secured we need to work together. They need our help and we need theirs. There is not much time.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]The global community have the potential to address the global environmental crisis if we can put aside divisions and conflict.We have a chance if we work together, recognising that we share a common need, a common problem and that there are common solutions.[/mk_fancy_title]
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Global Solutions to Global Problems

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Now that it is widely recognised that there is a real threat to freshwater supplies and the global water cycle, all possible measures to secure and preserve these, needs to be applied.[/mk_fancy_title]
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We all need the long-term sustainability of the global water cycle. It is not a luxury. Our lives and the long-term continuum of life on Earth are utterly dependent upon this cycle. It is imperative that the global community unites to address and resolve this common threat, this common worldwide water crisis. Although around the world there are presently many environmental, social and economic problems, freshwater underpins all of these. Our solving them is dependent upon us solving the problems affecting the global water cycle. Otherwise we will see short-term advantages for a few and long-term crisis, affecting virtually all humanity and most of life on Earth. Therefore safeguarding the global water cycle needs to become the top global priority. The process for achieving this will require that the ecosystems, which are necessary for maintaining and regulating this cycle, are protected, restored and preserved.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Because mountains and their forests are high up in the water cycle, they are particularly crucial and have a far-reaching impact upon the quantity and quality of freshwater available worldwide.[/mk_fancy_title]
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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Given their important role in water supply and regulation, the protection, sustainable management and restoration of mountain ecosystems will be essential.”
  

Download: UNESCO, 2013, ‘Climate Change impacts on Mountain Regions of the World.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/unesco-2013-climate-change-impacts-on-mountain-regions-of-the-world.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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Unfortunately these mixed mountain forests have been depleted on a momentous scale globally and monoculture does not provide the mixed variety of plants needed for high altitude precipitation.Particular emphasis needs to be given to the importance of the diversity of these ecosystems. It is the mountain forests with mixed biodiversity that provides the various elements that are so fundamental for regulating the regenerative and renewable functions of the global water cycle. It is also important to note that restoring and preserving these ecosystems will have a dual benefit, as it will also impact upon climate worldwide. Mountains ecosystems are key elements in global climate regulation.

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]Mountain regions worldwide need to be reforested with mixed indigenous trees and plants. This is a matter of urgency and needs to be done as fast as possible.[/mk_fancy_title]
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Therefore we have created a sustainable model for restoring and maintaining mixed mountain forests, which can be replicated worldwide in order to safeguard the global water cycle and help to mitigate the harmful effects of climate change. We have termed this model ‘The Green Groves and Green Corridors Method’. The model entails creating and maintaining an interlinking network of community managed green groves and green corridors that facilitates the fast spread of biodiversity throughout mountain regions.This model has been formulated considering the integration of modern and traditional conservation methods along with long-term sustainability concepts.

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It combines the conservation methods of sacred groves, spring sanctuaries, green-corridors, green-belts permaculture and companion planting. Recognising the crucial role of mountain communities, this will be a way by which these communities are supported, empowered and funded. It will also be a way of linking remote mountain villages together in an interconnected common project. The plants grown in the green corridors would be those with important ecological properties as well as those that provide for the specific needs of the local communities (e.g. food, medicines, fuel, fodder, biomass, phytoremediation etc.).

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]A global initiative that is crucial in both preserving the water cycle and stabilizing climate change is very pertinent and needed in this time of environmental instability.[/mk_fancy_title]
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It is imperative that the global community unites to address and resolve this common threat, this common worldwide water crisis. Although around the world there are presently many environmental, social and economic problems, freshwater underpins all of these. Our solving them is dependent upon us solving the problems affecting the global water cycle. Otherwise we will see short-term advantages for a few and long-term crisis, affecting virtually all humanity and most of life on Earth. There is still time to apply the needed solutions if we act without delay.

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[mk_blockquote style=”quote-style” font_family=”none” text_size=”12″ align=”left”]“Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage; lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent Environmental degradation.”
  

Download: UNCED, Rio 1992, Principe 15, Report on UN Conference on Environment and Development.pdf  [mk_font_icons icon=”moon-file-pdf” size=”small” padding_horizental=”4″ padding_vertical=”4″ circle=”false” align=”none” link=”http://www.activeremedy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/unced-rio-1992-principe-1-report-on-un-conference-on-environment-and-development.pdf”][/mk_blockquote]

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[mk_fancy_title tag_name=”h2″ style=”false” color=”#393836″ size=”24″ font_weight=”inhert” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”18″ font_family=”none” align=”left”]It is important to note that restoring and preserving mixed indigenous mountain region forests will have a dual benefit, as it will also impact upon climate worldwide. Healthy mountains ecosystems are key elements in global climate regulation.[/mk_fancy_title]
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